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Is inhibited by the cytosolic expression of IL-1 receptor-2 (IL-1R2) that binds to pIL-1 and thereby prevents its interaction with calpain and its subsequent secretion (4). However, active caspase-1 cleaves IL-1R2 and thereby enables pIL-1 processing. pIL-1 can also be passively released from damaged cells and, similar to mature IL-1, interacts with IL-1 receptor-1 (IL-1R1) (5). In addition to bei
Ways (7).whereas necrotic cells can release pIL-1, resulting in myeloid cell chemotaxis and inflammation.142 In fact, the IL-1 proform is known to bind to IL-1R1 and to induce inflammation. To date, however, it is not entirely clear which of the two forms is the most relevant following cell damage. Notably, IL-1 release by stressed endothelial cells was also proposed to be mediated by the formatio